Publication details

Authors: Saha, Partha; Roy, Mangal; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Lee, Boeun; Kumta, Prashant N. 
Title: Effects of grain refinement on the biocorrosion and in vitro bioactivity of magnesium 
Type: Journal Article 
Year: 2015 
Volume: 57 
Start Page: 294 
End Page: 303 
DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.07.033 
Abstract: Magnesium is a new class of biodegradable metals potentially suitable for bone fracture fixation due to its suitable mechanical properties, high degradability and biocompatibility. However, rapid corrosion and loss in mechanical strength under physiological conditions render it unsuitable for load-bearing applications. In the present study, grain refinement was implemented to control bio-corrosion demonstrating improved in vitro bioactivity of magnesium. Pure commercial magnesium was grain refined using different amounts of zirconium (0.25 and 1.0 wt.%). Corrosion behavior was studied by potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and mass loss immersion tests demonstrating corrosion rate decrease with grain size reduction. In vitro biocompatibility tests conducted by MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells and measured by DNA quantification demonstrate significant increase in cell proliferation for Mg1 wt.% Zr at day 5. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was higher for grain refined Mg. Alloys were also tested for ability to support osteoclast differentiation using RAW264.7 monocytes with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa- ligand (RANKL) supplemented cell culture. Osteoclast differentiation process was observed to be severely restricted for smaller grained Mg. Overall, the results indicate grain refinement to be useful not only for improving corrosion resistance of Mg implants for bone fixation devices but also potentially modulate bone regeneration around the implant. 
Keywords: Magnesium, Grain refinement, Biocorrosion, Biocompatibility, ALP, TRAP assay