Publication details

Authors: Singh, Satish S.; Roy, Abhijit; Lee, Boeun E.; Banerjee, Ipsita; Kumta, Prashant N. 
Title: MC3T3-E1 proliferation and differentiation on biphasic mixtures of Mg substituted -tricalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate 
Type: Journal Article 
Publisher: Materials Science and Engineering: C 
Year: 2014 
Volume: 45 
Start Page: 589 
End Page: 598 
DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.03.032 
Abstract: A low temperature aqueous approach was used to synthesize nanocrystalline, high surface area Mg2 + substituted -tricalcium phosphate (-TCMP) to assess its potential use as a synthetic bone graft substitute. X-ray diffraction indicated that -TCMP was the predominant crystalline phase formed. However, thermal analysis revealed the presence of a secondary amorphous phase which increased with increasing Mg2 + concentration. Further analysis by Rietveld refinement indicated that the level of ionic substitution of Ca2 + by Mg2 + was significantly lower than the amount of Mg2 + measured using elemental analysis, confirming the formation of a Mg2 + rich secondary amorphous phase. MC3T3-E1 proliferation on substrates prepared using -TCMP was assessed using the MTT assay. In comparison to commercially available -TCP, increased proliferation was observed on samples prepared with 50% Mg, despite elevated Mg2 + and PO43  concentrations in culture media. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and qRT-PCR were used to study the effect of varying Mg2 + substitution on osteogenic differentiation. Cells cultured on -TCMP substrates prepared with increased Mg2 + concentrations expressed significantly increased levels of ALP activity and osteogenic genes such as, osteocalcin, collagen-1, and Runx2, in comparison to those cultured on commercially available -TCP. 
Keywords: Calcium phosphate, Magnesium, Rietveld refinement, Osteogenic differentiation