Publication details

Authors: Beck, Faith R.; Epur, Rigved; Hong, Daeho; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Kumta, Prashant N. 
Title: Microwave Derived Facile Approach to Sn/Graphene Composite Anodes for, Lithium-Ion Batteries 
Type: Journal Article 
Publisher: Electrochimica Acta 
Year: 2014 
Volume: 127 
Start Page: 299 
End Page: 306 
DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2014.02.005 
Abstract: Tin particles embedded in graphene (G) sheets have been synthesized by microwave reduction of tin halide (SnCl2.2H2O) and graphite oxide (GO) followed by annealing in argon. The microwave reaction resulted in the formation of tin oxide embedded in graphene sheets. Annealing in argon at elevated temperatures initiated carbothermal reduction culminating in the formation of tin decorated graphene sheet composites that were employed as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. X-ray diffraction analysis of the final composite showed the presence of crystalline tin combined with a very small diffraction peak corresponding to (002) plane of graphite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed decorated graphene layers with tin droplets. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of graphene and graphene oxide in the composite. Electrochemical cycling response indicated that the tin/graphene composite exhibited initial discharge capacities varying from 790 mAh/g to 850 mAh/g depending on the composition, while a stable reversible capacity of <500 mAh/g was achieved for optimized compositions when cycled at a current density of <100 mA/g in the voltage window of 0.02 to 1.2 V vs. Li+/Li. Carbon coating of the Sn/G composite ultimately achieved by decomposition of dextrose using microwave heating significantly improved the electrochemical cycling stability. 
Keywords: Graphene, Tin, composite, Li-ion